Family Name Conventions by country
We can see some patterns or trends with names from or associates with a specific area ( at least for European derived names). This gives us a picture of the historical mix an influences. Some obvious conventions are in name formats such as
Mac prefix. Common associated with Scotland. McDowell, MacDonald, McIntyre
O prefix. Commonly associates with Ireland: O’Donnell, O’Connell, O’driscoll
son suffix. Commonly associates with Scandinavian countries. Johansson, Andersson
You can see the Viking influence in some Scottish names serving from the Scandinavian, e.g. Johnstone and Anderson both probably being derivations from the viking versions.